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  History of PSO

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PHOTOBIOLOGY is broadly defined to include all biological phenomena
involving non-ionizing radiation. It is recognized that photobiological responses are the result of chemical and/or physical changes induced in biological systems by non-ionizing radiation.
(Constitution of the American Society for Photobiology)

The goals of photobiology are:
(1) To understand the basic mechanisms of photobiology;
this knowledge can then be used to:
(2) Develop ways to control the beneficial effects of light upon our environment;
(3) Promote ways to protect against the detrimental effects of light on biological organisms, including humans; and
(4) Develop photochemical tools and techniques for use in research, medicine,
and industry.

Photobiological Sciences Online (PSO) will continue to grow as new modules are added. Your suggestions for new modules, and your comments on the
existing modules, and on this web page are most welcome.

If you use these modules in a class, please let the Editor know, where, when,
and how many students, and what modules were used.

Show your support for Photobiological Sciences Online,
join the American Society for Photobiology.
Check out the benefits of Membership.

John Lee
Kendric C. Smith
Editors and Webmasters

Photobiological Sciences Online is listed by the National Library of Medicine:
NLM ID: 101673292 [Book]
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
ISSN 2470-2749

The content of Photobiological Sciences Online is owned by the American Society for Photobiology. Permission is granted, however, to electronically copy and to print in hard copy portions of the web site for the sole purpose of educational use with no financial purpose, provided that no alterations or additions are made to the content.

    What is Photobiology?
        Kendric C. Smith
    A Century of Photobiology
        Thomas P. Coohill

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Stephen Hales and Sunlight
        Dennis Valenzeno
    Origin of UV-A, B and C
        Fred Urbach
    Niels Rydberg Finsen
        Dennis Valenzeno
    PUVA: An Ancient Remedy?
        Dennis Valenzeno
    Vision - The Medieval Eye
        Clyde W. Oyster
    Photosensitization - What Stopped the Wiggling?
        Dennis Valenzeno
    Bioluminescence - History
        John Lee
    Is it Really the Jablonski Diagram?
        Alexander A. Krasnovsky
    Photobiology in Art
        Kendric C. Smith
    The History of FRET: From Conception Through the Labors of Birth
        Robert M. Clegg
    Joseph Priestley and the Evolution of Oxygen In Photosynthesis
        Thomas M. Brennan

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Basic Photophysics
        Antonie J.W.G. Visser and Olaf J. Rolinski
    Radiometric Quantities and Units Used in Photobiology (PDF)
        David H. Sliney
    Nature's Fantastical Palette: Color from Structure
        Philip Ball

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Basic Spectroscopy
        Santi Nonell and Cristiano Viappiani
    Biological Action Spectra
        Holly L. Gorton

    See: Experiments

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Basic Photochemistry
        Kendric C. Smith
    Photochemistry: Theoretical Concepts and Reaction Mechanisms
        Yuri V. Il'ichev
    Glossary of Terms Used in Photochemistry, 3rd Ed. 2006 (PDF)
        IUPAC, Silvia E. Braslavsky, Editor

[ To Table of Contents ]
    Basic Photosensitization
        Nancy L. Oleinick
    Determining the Mechanism of Photosensitized Oxidations
        Jeffrey R. Kanofsky
    Molecular Targets of Photosensitization
        Garry R. Buettner
    Photosensitization of Subcellular Structures
        Terje Christensen
    Photosensitization Timelines

    See: Experiments

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Basic Ultraviolet Radiation Photobiology
        Kendric C. Smith
    History of Ultraviolet Photobiology
        Philip E. Hockberger
    Bystander Effect Induced by UV Radiation
        Maria Widel
    Recombinational DNA Repair
        Kendric C. Smith
    Nucleotide Excision Repair in Human Cells
        James E. Cleaver
        John Jagger
    UV Resistance and Photoreactivation of Extremophiles from
        High-Altitude Andean Lakes

        Virginia H. Albarracín, Wolfgang Gärtner, María E. Farías
    DNA Double-Strand Breaks
        Kendric C. Smith
    DNA-Protein Crosslinks
        Kendric C. Smith and Martin D. Shetlar
    UV Radiation and Spontaneous Mutagenesis
        Kendric C. Smith

    See: Experiments

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Basic Environmental Photobiology
        Linda Chalker-Scott
    Modeling Leaf Optical Properties
        Stéphane Jacquemoud and Susan L. Ustin
    Ultraviolet Effects on Phytoplankton
        Donat-P. Häder
    Photoreactivity of Drugs in vitro and in vivo
        Hanne Hjorth Tønnesen and Steven W. Baertschi
    Photoprotection of Plants via Optical Screening
        Alexei Solovchenko
    Report of an NAS/NAE Panel on Biological Impacts of Increased Intensities of
        Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, 1973

        Kendric C. Smith, Chairman

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Basic Photomedicine
       Ying-Ying Huang, Pawel Mroz and Michael R. Hamblin
        Faith Strickland
    Photosensitizers in Medicine
        Kristian Berg
    Introduction to Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)
        David Kessel
    Photodynamic Therapy and Signal Transduction
        Anatoly B. Uzdensky
    Human Photosensitive Diseases of DNA Repair
        James E. Cleaver
    Melanopsin: A Photopigment Regulating Circadian Photoentrainment May Lead to a
        Blue Light-Induced Treatment of Diabetes

        Anamika Sengupta

    Low-Level Laser or LED Therapy is Phototherapy
        Kendric C. Smith
    Mechanisms of Low Level Light Therapy (LLLT)
        Michael R. Hamblin
    Low Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) for Cosmetic Medicine and Dermatology
        Mossum K. Sawhney and Michael R. Hamblin
    Action Spectra: Their Importance for Low Level Light Therapy
        Tiina Karu
    Molecular Targets for Low Level Light Therapy
        Kendric C. Smith
    Light Coherence: Is this Property Important for Photomedicine?
        Tiina Karu

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Non-Visual Photoreception in Invertebrates
        Carlo Musio and Silvia Santillo
    Circadian Rhythm and Human Health
        Joan E. Roberts
    Molecular Evolution and Functional Diversity of Opsin-Based Photopigments
        Takashi Nagata, Mitsumasa Koyanagi and Akihisa Terakita
    The Pineal Gland: A Neuroendocrine Transducer of Light Information
        Anamika Sengupta and Gianluca Tosini

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Ocular Geometry and Topography
        Clyde W. Oyster
    Photobiology of the Cornea
        Anthony P. Cullen
    Photobiology of the Human Lens
        Joan E. Roberts
        Clyde W. Oyster
    Retina: Photoreceptors and Functional Organization
        Clyde W. Oyster
    Adaptation of Rod Photoreceptors to Light and Dark
       Malgorzata Rozanowska
    The Visual Cycle: Generation of 11-cis Retinal for Photoreceptors
        Rosalie K. Crouch
    Light-Induced Damage to the Retina
       Malgorzata Rozanowska, Bartosz Rozanowski, Michael Boulton
    Photobiology of the Uveal Tract
        Dan-Ning Hu

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Basic Photomorphogenesis
        James Shinkle
    Photoreceptor Mutants for the Study of Photoreceptor Interactions
        Keara A. Franklin and James Shinkle
    Blue Light Sensing in Plants
        John Christie
    Photomorphogenesis in Natural Light Environments
        Keara A. Franklin and James Shinkle
    Photomorphogenic Responses of Plants to UV-B Radiation
        Gareth I. Jenkins

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Basic Photomovement
        Francesco Lenci
    Photomovement of Bacteria and Archaea
        Wouter Hoff
    Photomovement of Ciliates
        Francesco Lenci, Giovanni Checcucci, Antonella Sgarbossa
    Confocal Microscopy of Ciliated Protozoa
        Giuliano Colombetti, Giovanni Checcucci, Paolo Bianchini

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Basic Photosynthesis
        Thomas M. Brennan
    Photosynthesis Timelines
        Thomas M. Brennan
    Photosynthetic Reaction Centers
        Charles Yocum
    Oxygen Evolution
        Charles Yocum
    Light and Chloroplast Enzyme Activity
        Peter Schürmann
    Systems Biology of Photosynthesis
        Xin-Guang Zhu
    Bacterial Photosynthesis
        Michael R. Jones
    Phytochrome Photoreceptors In Cyanobacteria
            The Impact Of Light Quality On Phycobilisome Biosynthesis

        Arthur R. Grossman and Devaki Bhaya
    Applied Photosynthesis for Biofuels Production
        Mike Seibert

[ To Table of Contents ]

    Basic Bioluminescence
        John Lee
    Bioluminescence Timelines
        John Lee
    Chemistry of Firefly Bioluminescence
        Bruce R. Branchini
    Terrestrial Bioluminescence
        Vadim R. Viviani
    Bacterial Bioluminescence: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
        Leo Yen-Cheng Lin and Edward A. Meighen
    Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence and its Circadian Regulation
        J. Woodland Hastings
    The Diversity of Light-Producing Marine Organisms
        Steven H.D. Haddock
    Structure and Spectra in Bioluminescence
        John Lee and Eugene S. Vysotski
    Green Fluorescent Protein: A Molecular Microscope
        Marc Zimmer
    Applications of Bioluminescence: Cell Based Assays and Imaging
        Yoshihiro Ohmiya
    Analytical Applications of Luminous Bacteria Enzymes
        Valentina Kratasyuk and Elena Esimbekova

    See: Experiments

[ To Table of Contents ]

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